Red Lake Nation News - Babaamaajimowinan (Telling of news in different places)

How Indigenous Nations Are Rebuilding Food Systems


“We were thrown to the four winds.”

That's how Francene Ambrose describes the fate of her people when, in 1954, the U.S. government terminated its relationship with the Confederated Tribes of Grand Ronde.

This article was originally published on, a nonprofit, public-service news team based in Portland, Oregon.

The U.S. had obtained Western Oregon by treaty a century earlier. Although Article VI of the U.S. Constitution states that treaties are “the supreme law of the land,” termination meant the U.S. no longer recognized Grand Ronde and sold the lands it had protected for the tribe by holding the title in trust. The people were forced to relocate.


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