Northern Great Plains people key in defeating Keystone XL Pipeline proposal
In 2008, the U.S. State Department granted the TransCanada Corp. permission to build its Keystone 1 Pipeline across the Canadian border into the United States. The route ran through all the eastern-border counties of North and South Dakota, carrying diluted bitumen (dilbit) or tar-sands solution from the mines in Alberta Province to Illinois, via Nebraska, Kansas, and Missouri. The company then applied for a second permit to build the Keystone XL, aka Gulf Coast or Cushing Extension, to pump the very heavy crude in toxic solution 1,179 miles through Montana, South Dakota, and Nebraska, then on to the Gulf of Mexico for refining and export.
The Sisseton-Wahpeton Oyate, Rosebud Sioux Tribe, Santee Sioux Tribe of Nebraska, and the Yankton Sioux Tribe lost a federal court bid to enjoin the construction of Keystone 1 when a judge dismissed their claim on Sept. 29, 2009, for lack of jurisdiction. Over the next seven years, tribes and grassroots organizations joined in planning direct actions to protest the Keystone XL route across 1851 and 1868 Ft. Laramie Treaty territory.